INDIAN ECONOMY CHHANCHHUAHNA LEH SIAMTHATNA KAWNG

(Finance Minister atana Manmohan Singh thlanna thu kha ka sawi tawh a. Tunah chuan, India ram economy tlu chhe tur chhanchhuahna leh siamthatna kawngte kan sawi dawn a ni. USSR economy a chhia a, ram tam takah an keh darh a. India pawh hi, 1991 khan economy tlu chhe tak tak se, enge a dinhmun tur hriatthiam.a har hle.Prime Minister Narasimha Rao a hnathawh hi a ropui em em a ni)

Chutichuan, Narasimha Rao-a sawrkar thar chu 1991 June thla khan lakluh a lo ni ta a. Sawrkar thar chua harsatna namenloa tawk a, India ram chu chhe rup thei, buai nuaih nuaih thei a ni. FOREX reserve-ah kar hnih daih chiah, Import atana pek tur a nei tawh a. A dawt chu, Loan defaulter nih a ni. Chu thil chu a zahthlak em em a ni. Narasimha Rao- hian, 2004 a Walk the talk-ah pawh, ” India in a honour a chan dawn a…Chu chu a rapthlak lutuk a ni” tiin a sawi, Hetianga India in sum lama nasa taka harsatna a tawh chhan hi kawng lian tak tak pathum a awm a.

A chhan bulpui ber chu, Nehruvian Socialism kha a ni a. Chu chuan Nget angin India ram chu a ei char char mai a ni…

Tuna a chhan pathum ka han sawi hi chu, 1991 a Lok Sabha Term 10-na sawrkarin harsatna a han tawh chiamna chhan kha a ni a. Chumi hnaiah chuan, chutiang thil chu a thleng a ni.

A chhan pakhat chu, 1990a Gulf War vang kha a ni. Khami khan Oil man chu a let thum dawrhin a t sang a. Middle East-a Indian hnathawk te hnena atanga India rama sum lo lut chu a tlahniam dawrh mai a ni.

A chhan Pahnihna chu, New Delhi Politics mumal lo lutuk vangin, Ram danga awm Indian ho chuan, April-June 1991 chhung khan, US Dollar Million 900 zet chu, india ram atang an withdrew a ni.

A dang leh chu, Rajiv Gandhi sawrkar laia short term loan an puk nasa lutuk kha a ni a. Chu chu, 1991-ah khan a rulh a lo hun tawh a ni.

Chutiang khawvel chu Narasimha Rao-a sawrkar thar chuan a hmachhawn ta a.

Narasimha Rao chuan india economy siam danglam chu a ram tan a tul tih a hria a, a harsatna tawh tur a hmachhawn tur pawh hun rei ve chu angaihtuahin a chhut bawk a ni.

Prime Minister Rao-an a harsatna tawh hmasa ber chu, a party khan Majority an chang zo tlat lo. 1980 a Indira Gandhi te, 1984-a Rajiv Gandhi te ang khan Majority a chang zo lo..Opposition party BJP leh National Front ho an tan rual loh kha a tan chuan a pawimawh a ni. A hun chhung hian No Confidence Motion a tawk fo a, a survive vek a. JMM MP Pali tham anga an puhna pawh kha, khatih hunlaia CBI Director khan Rao-a hian inhnam hnawihna a neih loh thu tun hnu hian a sawi a ni. Hetia, Legislative handicap a nih hi, Politik a hmalaknaah a chak loh phah hle a, Reformer ropui dang, Deng Xioing-ate, Lee Kuan Yew a te, Park Chung hee te, Margaret Thatcher leh Ronald Reagan te ho chuan, Clear majority an nei vek a ni. Hetiang harsatna a nei chunga, Economic reformation a kalpui thei te, term khat a survive thei te hi a ropui hle a ni
A harsatna tawh pahnihna chu, India ram chhunga sum dawng lian, Bombai Club an tih mai te chu a ni a. Anni hian, Lobby saktu mi thei tak tak an nei a, License Raj hmangin an lo in la lian tawh a. Economy hawn zau a nih a, ram company lo lut tur kha an huphurh a ni.

A harsatna tawh leh pakhat chu, Left wing mifing ho an ni a. Media leh zirna In, University-ah te mi an hneh theiin, mi rilru an kaihhruai nasa si a. Tun hma lam pawhin, economic lam hmasawnna tur kawng enge maw hmalakna tam tak chu an lo ti thuanawp tawh thin a ni

A harsatna tawh lian ber chu, a ma party ngei, Jawaharlal Nehru leh Indira Gandhi te lo kaihhruai Congress party chu a ni. An ideology Socialism thlauhthla theiin an inngai lo a ni. 1991-a Congress Party manifesto pawhin, Rajiv Gandhi La dam ni se, economic siamthatna chu an kalpui tur thu reng a inziak lo bawk a.

A harsatna tawh lian ber chu, a ma party ngei, Jawaharlal Nehru leh Indira Gandhi te lo kaihhruai Congress party chu a ni. An ideology Socialism thlauhthla theiin an inngai lo a ni. 1991-a Congress Party manifesto pawhin, Rajiv Gandhi La dam ni se, economic siamthatna chu an kalpui tur thu reng a inziak lo bawk a.

Congress Prime Minister ni thei mai zinga mi Arjun Singh leh ND tiwari te pawh kha, Socialist mi un tih tur, khawthlang lam nena inzawmna duhlo tawp an ni a. Tlema dang deuh chu, Industrialized state Maharashtra lam mi, Sharad Pawar a kha a ni a. A ni pawh, Bombai sumdawngte nena an inzawmna a that em avangin, Liberalization tak tak ai chuan, Oligarchic Capitalism lam a tuipui a rinawm zawk bawk. Indian Economy hawn zua a, Liberalization kalpui tak tak chuan, Congress party luhlul tak mai kha a hneh phawh angai a. Parliament an inthurual si lo, Industrialist hoin an hlau thawng si, Intellectual ho lah ngaihdan dang an nei nasa mai su a, Centrally Planned economy a hlawkna dawngtu zawng zawng- Loneitu hause te, Trade Union te, Sumdawng lian te, Politician hlemhle tak te, sawrkar hnathawk lian te thlengin, thil an ti thei em em ,a chung ho chu a hneh vek a ngai a ni

1991 Ministry an han inform dawn a, Rao-a hna hmasa ber chu, Congress hruaitu ho zinga, Finance Minister nih lo inbeisei ve te dah bo kha a ni. 1982-84 khan Indira Gandhi hnuaiah Finance Minister a lo ni tawh a. Prime Minister nih inchuhna lai boruakah Rao-a lamah hian Pranaba hi a ta avangin, FM nih ngei pawh a inring hle a ni.

20th June 1991 khan Chawhnu lam khan, Rao-a chuan IB lam a ko a, IB official chu Pranab-a chungchang inziahna FIle kengin PM tur chu a hmu ta a. Heta tang hian Pranaba hi FM tur zingah sawirik a ni ta lo a ni

Chumi nia IG Patel-an India Finance Minister nihna a hnar takah chuan, chumi zan lala chuan Alexander-an Manmohan-a a call nghal a. A tuk, Lakluhni zing chuan, PV narasimha Rao- hian Manmohana chu a call leh a ni. Hemi thu hi chu a hmain kan sawi tawh kha.

Pranaba chanchin tha lo leh amah puh hmingchhiatna tur phei chu engmah a awm lo, niin an sawi. Thil chiang tak erawh chu, Chumi ni chawhnu chuan, Pranaba chu FM tura sawi rik a ni ta lo

Pranaba chuan,hemi chungchang hi a lehkhabu The Turbulent Years tihah heti hian a sawi, ” CPP leader atana thlan a nih hnu lawkah, Minsiter atana ruat awm te hming rawt turin min ti a. Ka hrilh ho chu an tel deuh vek a. Keipawh ka tel ve ka in ring hle Mahse, ka hming chu a tel ta hauh lo a… A hnu lamah, Planning Commission deputy chairman atan min ti a…

PV hian, ‘ka ruat lohna chhan che chu ka hrilh thei rih lo che a…Engtikah emaw chuan ka la hrilh ang che min ti a…a thih thlengin min hrilh ta lo’ a ti. Kha file-ah khan engemaw tak chu a awm ang.

Pranab Mukherjee hian, A autobiography a ziak mek a. Bu thum turin a ruahman a, Bu hnih a ziak tawha a. Bu khat chu, The Dramatic Decade tih a ni a, Bu dang leh chu, The Turbulent Years tih a ni.

Manmohan Singh-a chu, Cambridge a zir chhuak, South Commission-a General Secretary nilai, Geneva-a awm mek a ni. South Commission kan tih fo hi, United Nations hnuaia pawl pakhat economic development lama hmalatu an ni. Tunah phei chuan South Centre an ti tawh a.

Manmohan Singh-a hi Rao-an a, “Khawvel pawmpui leh ngaihsan tur mihring” Finance Minister atana a zawn chu, ani hian a tling em em a ni. India ramah hma han la tak tak thei tur Finance Minister, khawthlang ram hausa te duh zawng kha a zawng a ni.

Prime Minister Rao-a hian Manmohan Singh-a hi a mi duhzawng a ni hrim hrim a, Tunhma atangin an lo inkawm fo tawh thin a ni. Narasimha Rao-a hian 1984 khan, Defence Minister a nihna bakah, Planning Commission a deputy Chairman nihna a chelh thin a. Rajiv Gandhi a hmuin, ” Planning Commission hotu hna hi chu, Mi thiam bik hna a ni a. Heti lama thiam bik hi an ngai a ni” tiin a sawi a. Rajiv Gandhi-a chuan a aiawh tu tur rawt turin a ti a, Rao-a chuan, Manmohan Sigh-a chu a rawt a. 1985-87 chhung khan Planning Commission deputy chairman nihna chu a Manmohan Singh-a chan a chelh ta bawk a ni. Narasimha Rao-a ropui deuhna chu, Nihna a awtin a duh ngawr ngawr lo a, ram tana tha a hriatah chuan a nihna a kalsan phal zel a ni.

Chumi hnu kum ruk hnuah chuan, Finance Minister atan chuan Manmohan Singh-a bawk chu a thlang leh ta a ni. Hemi tum hian a first choice phei chu IG Patel a ni a.

Manmohan Sigh-a chu Reformer chi hrang hrang a bula awm tura Rao-an a thlan chhuah zinga pakhat ve mai chauh a ni a.

Rao-a chuan, PMO atanga Reform an kalpui mek kaihhruai theitu tur Principal secretary a duh a. PC Alexander a chuan, GV Ramakrishna a rawt a. Finance lamah hnu hma a lo nei teuh tawh a. Rao-a chuan, Andra Pradesha CM a nih laia a thil lo tawn tawh avangin, a fimkhur a. Caste inangin nihna lian chelh ho teuh loh dan a ngaihtuah a. “Prime Minister leh Principal Secretary te chu South indian Brahmin an ni tur a ni lo. Ngaikawng an tam palh ange” a ti a. Rao-a chuan, UP mi, Amar Nath Varma a thlang ta a. Manmohan Singh-a tluk bawka Rao-a liberalization reform kawnga hna pawimawh thawktu a ni chho ta a ni

Amar Nath-a chu Industry secretary ni thin a ni a. Planning Commission-ah a awm mek laiin, Principal Secretary atan an la chhuak ta a. A tih tawh chu ti tlat mai, tih hlawhtlin ngei ngei tum mi a ni a. A nghawng tur lam chu engpawh nise la, a tum chu hlen ngei ngei tum mi a ni

Rao-a tanpuitu pawimawh tak mai chu Cabinet secretary naresh Chandra a ni a. sawrkar hmasa lamin an lo hman tawh a ni a. A hmang chhunzawm zel a. Cabinet secretary hi India rama sawrkar hnathawk te thlen san theih ber a ni.Amahah chuan, Henry Kissingera zahawmna leh mi pawhbeh thiamna chu a awm ve bawk a ni. Tlangval hnahkhat ngat mai a ni a. sawrkar hnathawh dan phung leh kalphung a hre em em a, License raj hmanga sawrkar lo in hnukhnawk tup mai chu, tu vak mah sawibuaina awm miah loin a thian fai ve thei a ni

Narasimha Rao-a hian, Naresh Chandra hi ngainatna chhan riau a nei a, A chhan chu, a hnulamah heti hian a sawi. 1991 khan, Narasimha Rao chu Opposition MLA a ni a. Politics atanga chawlh tum chho tawh a ni. Nikhat chu Parliament-ah a tei vel laiin, Chutih laia Commerce Secretary Montek Singh Ahluwalia leh Cabinet Secretary Naresh Chandra te Parliament buildinga rawn luh tum chu a hmu a. Security Guard chuan, Montek Singh chauh chu, a lo endik a. Hei hi Frisking an ti a. Naresh Chandra chuan, amah pawh chu, security Guard hnenah chuan endik ve turin a ti a. Hei hi a chhan chu, Montek Singh-an nuamlo a ti ang tih a hlau a ni. Hemi a hmuh atang hian Naresh Chandra chu Rao-a mi rin zawng tak leh ngainat zawng tak a ni chho ta a ni.

Montek Singh Ahluwalia-a tak pawh hi Rao-an a close circle-ah a hnuklut zui ta bawk a. Rhodes scholar meuh a ni a. World Bank-ah hun rei tak a lo thawk tawh bawk. Rao-a hian, Jairam Ramesh-a chu officer on Special duty atan a ruat bawk a. Commerce Minister atan Tamil Nadu lam lawyer naupang tak, P. Chidambaram a ruat bawk a. Party danga liberalizer/reformist te pawh, Rao-a hian a sawm a, Subramaniam Swamy te, Yashwant Sinha te pawh a cabinet atan hian sawm a ni.

Chuti chuan, Finance leh Commerce Ministry enkawl turin liberalizer rual a la khawm a. Ama Principal Secy ngei pawh sumdawnna zalen taka kalpui duhtu a thlang bawk a,. Amah ngei chu, Industry Minister atan a indah bawk a. Industrial Policy tha taka kalpui tur chu, Industry Minister nih ngei a duh a ni.

Rao-an siamthatna hna a thawh kalpui a tum dan hi a ropui khawp mai a. Party a sawi lo a. A thiam thiam leh tha tur, a tui tur a thlang tawp mai a ni.

Chuti chuan, a cabinet atana a mi duhte a lo thlang zo ta a. A taka hna an thawh tan chu a lo tul ta a ni.
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Finance Minister atana lakluh a ni hnu nilina, June ni 24, 1991 khan, Sawrkar hnathawk lian tak tak 12 chu, Finance Minsitry pindan te tak teah a ko khawm a, Chutah chuan, Siamthatna chungchang a han sawi pui chuan, Liberalization chu an duh lo hle mai a. Manmohan-a chuan, “Kan ti ngei ngei dawn a. Tih ngei ngeina turin Prime Minister-in thuneihna pumhlum min pe a ni. Hemi kawnga harsa ti tur chuan, sawi rawh u. In tihtur dang kan zawng mai ang” a ti hmiah mai a ni.

Hemi ni vek hian, Narasimha Rao chuan Opposition hruaitu liante a mal malin a kawm vek a, PM hlui Chandra Sekhar a hun a lo thlen dawn chuan, amah Rao-a zawk hian ava hmu a ni.

Chumi tukah chuan, Opposition hruaitu chak pahnih, VP Singh-a leh Jaswant Singh-a te chu, PM leh Finance Minister hian an brief leh a, India ram economy dinhmun chhiatzia fiah takin an hrilh a. Chuti em ema chhia chu a ni tih pawh anni chuan an lo hre lo.
Prime Minister, House a majority pawh neiloin, Opposition leader ho bula thuruk a han sawi ngam leh sawi duh hi pui tak a ni. Vinay satapati chuan, “a finthlak turuin, a thilphal thlak chungchuang a ni”, tiin a ziak hial a ni.

Rao-a hian, Thil pahnih erawh, Opposition lam hi a hrilh duh lo a. India pawisa hlutna an ti hniam anga, Foreign Loan pukna turin India ram rangkachak te chu an dahkham dawn bawk a ni, tih chu.
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Siamthatna kawnga hma an han lak chhoh dawn tak tak chuan, India pawisa hlutna tih hniam tumna chu an hna hmasa bera hman an tum a. Chumi kawngah chuan, dodalna an tawk nasa hle. US Dollar nena chhuta a hlutna tih hniam phawt loh chuan, Foreign Investor ho an phur lo a. Exports-ah pawh harsatna a siam sak a, IMF erawh chuan, India pawisa hlutna tih hniam phawt chu a phut tlat a ni, India sawrkar thar chuan a ti tak zet a ni tih ti chiangtu a tan.

Mahse, Pawisa hlutna an tih hniam phawt chuan, Ramchhungah dodalna tam tak a tawk dawn tih a inhria a. A chhan chu, pawisa hlutnaah chuan, Hnam zahawmna thui tak a awm ngaih a nih thin vang a ni. 1966 Khan Indira Gandhi pawhin Pawisa hlutna a lo ti tlahniam tawh a. Chutah chuan, Indira Gandhi chuan sawiselna leh harsatna tam tak a tawh phah a. Chu chu Rao-a hian a hre ve reng a ni.

Rao-a chu Pawisa hlutna ti hniam lo tura nawrna nasa tak a tawk a. Left Intellectual ho phei chuan an nawr nasa. Nikhil Chakravarty a te phei chu amah nawr nasa zualtu a ni. Amaherawhchu, Manmohan Singh-a Ngaihdanah chuan, Pawisa hlutna tih hniam chu, “Loh theih loh a ni” tih a ni bur si a. Manmohana Ngaihdana kal tlangpui a, a lama tan tlat chu Rao-a thutlukna a ni. Pawisa tih hniam duhlotute bumnan Pawisa tih hniamna chu Faith Accompli angin an kalpui a. Faith Accompli tih hi ka han hmang lui kher a. Kan hriatna belhtu atana ka duh vang a ni. Faith Accompli tih chu, Political tactic chi khat a ni a. Administration tactic te pawh a ni tho. “A hma daiha thutlukna lo siam tawh leh tih fel tawh, tih fel a nih vek tawh hnua puan chhuah chauh thil, a dodal tute pawhin dodal ngaihna awm tawh lo. Pawm mai loh chu duhthlan tur an nei tawh lo”- hei hi faith Accompli chu a ni a. Hemi hmanna chang an han hria te hi Prime Minister Rao-a finna em em chu a ni. Economics Problem a zu hre chiang em em a, Huaisen taka siamthatna kalpui dan a tul zia a hria a. Chumi kawnga an harsatna tawh tur leh Political Problem hrang hrang te leh a Politician puite riru puthmang thlenga a hriat chian zia ti chiangtu a ni.

Hemi thu hi cabinet pawhin an hre lo a. Rao-a leh Manmohan-a chauhin an hria a ni. June ni 20, 1991 a lakluh sawrkar khan, 1991 July nikhatah Pawisa hlutna an han ti hniam nghal a. Tunlai tawngkam takin, Honeymoon pawh hmang loin, Mutmu tuah loin hna an thawk nghal char char a nih chu. A hmalamah khan, Rao-a chu a hriselna a tlahniam a. Heart attack a nei hrep tawh a. Politics-a chawl deuh roh a nih hnua PM rawn ni leh thut a nih thu kan sawi tawh a. A hriselna te aia dah pawimawh zawk a nei tihna a nih chu.
7-9 percent inkar chauhin Pawisa hlutna hi an ti hniam a. Indira Gandhi khan, 1966 a pawisa hlutna a tih hniam khan, 57.4 Percent-in a ti hniam a ni. Chu hmalakna chu media chuan an fak a. Opposition lam an thinrim tak zet a. Ama Party mi te ngei pawh an thinrim a. Boruak a sang hle a ni.

Rao-a chuan, finance Ministry atangin a cabinet te hmaa chhiar chhuah tur thu thawn turin a ti a, devaluation chung changah. “Kan tih loh chuan, July thla lai hawl chuan, kan mualpho vek a ni mai” tih chiah chu, Deepak Nayyar-an a rawn thawn a, chu chu a chhiar chhuak ta a ni.

Pawisa hlutna tih hniam tum hnihna tur chu a awm leh dawn tiin titi ruk a han awm a. Political Pressure a sang ta lutuk a Rao-a meuh pawhin, Tih rih loh mai a duh hial a, May ni 3 chu Pawisa hlutna tih hniam tum hnihna ni tura an ruahman ni a ni a. Manmohan-an, RBI deputy Governor C. Rangarajan-a chu, la ti rih lo tura a va phone chuan, ani chuan, “ka puang der tawh mai” a lo ti ta si a. A tum hnihnaah hian 20 PC a tih hniam a ni. Manmohan Singh chuan, “Ka bang mai ange” a ti a. Prime Minister chuan a phal ta hlek lo a. “A mawh chu ka chungah tla rawh se” a lo ti bur mai si a. Manmohan-a pawh chu a bang ta lo a. “Ka lamah a tang tlat a ni” tiin Manmohan Singh-a chuan a sawi. UPA 1 leh UPA 2 -ah khan a PM lai khan Sonia-i te khan Manmohan-a Rao-a ang hian thuneihna pein, a lamah tang bur se, thunun tum lo ta se, India ram hi a danglam daih mai thei a ni.

Prime Minister chu alamah a tang tlat a, Thil a kalfuh loh chuan, amah chu a bang hreh dawn hauh lo tih a hriat chuan, manmohan-a chu a phur thar leh ta a. India rama mi thiam leh mi thei ber ber chu, PM hnenah chuan, Post pawimawha ruat turin a rawn a. PM pawhin Manmohan-a rawtna ang hian a kalpui chho ta bawk a ni.

India ram economy-ah hian State intervention a nasa em em a, Zalen taka sumdawnna a kalpui theih loh a, 1991 hmalamah kha chuan. Daidanna leh thil hrang hrang a tam em em a ni.

India pawisa hlutna an han tih hniamah chuan, a hmaa export subisdy leh Cash Compensatory Scheme an lo hman te chu a lo tul ta lo a. Chu mi tih tawpna chu Montek Singh-a leh P. Chidambaram-a chuan, Manmohan-a hnenah an thlen a. Chu chu July ni 3 zan a ni a. Chumi atanga darkar 12 ral hmain, Export subsidy leh CCS te chu tih bo a lo ni ta a. Mimal sumdawng te, ramchhung leh ram pawna mi te chu zalen takin India-ah an sumdawng tan chho thei dawn ta a ni.

Politics-ah erawh chuan, Chutiang thil thlakdanglamna chuan, Rao-a chu phurrit nasa tak a pe a, Party hrang hrang atangin leh Official atang pawhin duhlohna a nasa hle, 1991 July ni 9 khan, Heng reform tulzia thute hi sawiin, Thiam takin sawiselna te chu a beng per a. An harsatna lian hmasa chu a dah bo thei ta a. Siamthatna kawng hmasa ber Pawisa hlutna tih hniamna chu July ni 1 leh Ni 3-ah tih a niin, July ni 9 chuan a buaina ken tel te nen an ching fel thei ta a ni.

National Front Sawrkar khan, Industrial Policy thar tur draft an lo nei sa tawh a. Draft bak chu a pel hman lo a. 1991-a Rao-a sawrkar khan, chumi draft chu a la leh nghal chat ta a. Chumi Draft awmsa behchhan chuan, Industrial Policy thar tur ruahmanna chu, Industry Minister a nihna angin PV Narasimha Rao-a chuan hma a lakpui ta a. A hma lamah khan, Hnathawh tak tak a duh avangin, industry Minister-ah a mah a indah tih kan sawi tawh kha.

Principal Secretary Amar Nath Varma chu chak taka hma la turin a hrilh a, Ani chuan, Industry Secretary Suresh Mathur, leh Rakesh Mohan leh Jairam Ramesh-a te chu a ko a, Anni ho chuan, uluk takin Industrial Policy thar duang turin Draft awmsa chu an han ching let ta a. July ni 2-a Sawrkar lakluh a nih khan, hma an la nghal a. Draft lo awmsa chu, Industrial Policy tha takah July 7, 1991 khan an chhuah nghal thei der a ni.

He dratt hi Prime Minister hian a lo zir chiang nasa hle a, a ziah belhin, a thairang nasa hle a ni. July ni 7-a Amar Nath verma leh a thianten, Policy thar an lo peih sa chu, a hma a mi an hman lai atanga thil danglam/thil thar an siam belh te chungchang chu amah hrilhfiah turin, Jairam Ramesh-a chu a ti a. Hei hi a chhan chu, Congress Party hruaitte lo hrilhfiah lawk a duh a ni.
July ni 8 chawhnu lam chuan, Phek nga a chhaha Industrial Policy chungchang hrilhfiahna chuan PM kut a thleng a. Ni 9-ah CPP Inhmuhkhawmnaah, PM hian Industrial Policy thar hi a sawifiah ta a ni. A kim chuan a sawi fiah duh lo a, a chhan chu, Opposition ho chu, Thawm nei theilo tura siam a duh vang a ni.
July ni 15, 1991 a nih chuan, Rao-a hian Parliament-ah Vote of Confidencea hmachhawn nghal der mai a. Kar hnih emaw chauhah, a sawrkar paihthlak tumna a hmachhawn nghal der a nih chu. Hemi tumah hian, Ram leh hnam tana an ideology te dahtha rih turin a ngen a. Sanskrit thufing pakhat, ” Sarvanashe samutpanne ardham tryajati panditah” tih chu sawi chhuakin, Chhiat vek ai chuan, mi fing chuan a ngaihdan ni chiah lo pawh a pawm rih thin tihna ni ber. Hemi tum hian a sawrkar chu a him pui thei a ni.
Hemi ni chawhnu vek hian, Cabinet Meeting an nei a. Cabinet chu, Industrial Policy tharah chuan an hmin lo khawp a. A bikin, ML Fortedar leh Arjun Singh an hmin lo zual. Hemi meeting hma hian, Rao-a hian, a secretary RK Khandekhar-a chu Arjun Singh-a chu a policy thatna sawipuia lo hmin tum turin a lo tir tawh a ni.

Cabinet chu an lungawi theih loh avangin siamthat leh nise an ti a. Rao-a hian thiam takin, a ruangawm pui chu a danglam lohnan hma a la a. Thuhmahruai thuizet mai, Congress Party, Nehru leh Indira Gandhi te thu lo tuipui chungchang sawi duahna chu a belh tir a, July ni 23, 1991-ah Cabinet chuan, Policy siam rem chu an thlir leh ta a ni. Cabinet hel lutuk pawh an hmin der mai.

Hemi ni chawhnu vek hian, CWC an thu leh a. Hetah pawh hian, Thiam takin, 1969-a Indira Gandhi Policy ai chuan, 1956-a Nehru a Policy ngaih pawimawhna zawk a ni ve mai tih thu sawiin, Prime Minister chuan, Nehru te Pafa thuah duhthlan tur a pe ta daih zawk a. An Party chuan, Public Sector an la ngai pawimawhin an la ring tawk tih a sawi tel bawk a ni. A dawtah, Finance Minister chuan thu a sawi ve thung a, a pu (rao-a) hnen atangin a lo inzir thiam hman bawk a. 1991-a an Party Manifesto-ah chuan, Industrial Policy thar tur chi a lo intuh daih tawh a ni, tih a sawi ve bawk a. Chutiang erawh a ni hauh lo a. CWC meeting chu an putu chuan an hmin leh ta der mai a ni. Meeting banah hian, Arjun Singh-a chuan, Manmohan-a hnenah chuan, “Dr. Singh, keini ai chuan, Manifesto i lo chhiar uluk daih mai” a ti nghe nghe a ni. CWC tih hi Congress Working Commitee tihna a ni.

An ruahmanna chu a hlawhtling a. industrial Policy thar chu, India chuan a nei ta der mai. Hei hi india ram Economy chhanchhuahna kawnga thil pawimawh lutuk a ni.

Rakesh Mohan-a chuan, ” Vawi tam tak Industrial Policy kan lo duangin kan lo ziak tawh a, Politics lama a thuneituten an tuipui loh a, an tan tlat thin loh avangin eng a ang thei lo, 1991-a Industrial Policy lo awm theihna atana Rao-a hnathawh hi a ropui hle a ni” tiin a sawi nghe nghe.

Industrial Policy thar hi, Manmohan Singh-a chuan, Budget Speech-ah tel se a duh na a, telh a ni ta lo a, 1991 Budget Pharh ni zing, July ni 24, 1991-ah Industrial Policy thar hi puan chhuah a ni ta a ni.

Devaluation leh Industrial Policy chungchang kan sawi tawh a. 1991 India Budget chungchang kan sawi ve leh tawh dawn a ni.

Budget kan tih hian, Hunbi tiam chhunga sawrkarin a sum leh pai te a khawih chet dan tur tih a ni deuh ber mai. Budget hi India Constitution-ah ziah lan a ni a lo a. Annual Financial Statement tiin Article 112-naah chuan tarlan a ni.
Budget chhungah hian sum hman dan chungchang sawina te, Hmalakna (scheme) thar tur chungchang te, Chhiah thar lak tur chungchang leh Budget speech te ngei chu khung tel a ni thin a ni. Budget chu sawrkar sum kalpui dan tarlanna a ni mai a, kawng leh lamah chuan, sum vawnna leh ziahfelna bu a ni deuh mai a. Khawvel ram tam takah chuan an la thutak em em lo. India ramah erawh chuan, Parliament session laia Policy an khel tak tak tum tlemte zinga a mi a ni thin a, a pawimawh hle a ni.

1991 Buget chu India sawrkar tharin a hma thlirte pho chhuahna hun tha tak a ni.

1991 Budget ruahmanna hi Finance Minister Manmohan Singh-a kaihhruaina hnuaiah kalpui a ni. Ministry of industry, Commerce leh PMO te nen uluk leh chip chiar taka inrawnin an kalpui a. PMO-a siamthatna kawnga Rao-a tana mi pawimawh tak chu Amar Nath Varma a ni. July thla tir atangin, sawrkar hnathawk pawimawh zual ho chu, Nilaithawhtanni tlaiah a inhmuh khawmpuiin, a titi pui thin a, kartin chuan, Economic siamthat kawnga an ngaihtuahna leh hmathlirte an sawi ho a, chuta an thutlukna chu Cabinet pawmpui turin an thawn leh ta thin a ni. Rao-a Sawrkar chhung hian, “varma-Nilaithawhtan” (Varma’s Thursday) chu siamthatna lungpui pawimawh tak pakhat a ni chho ta a ni.

Heng July thla tir lam hian, Budget tur chungchang chu chipchiar takin an khel a, Chumi chu mumal takin an draft a, Finance Ministry kutah a lut leh ta thin a ni.

Budget chu document pawimawh lutuk a ni a, pawn lamah a put chhuah a hlauhawm si a. Budget lo chhuah hmaa, budget chhunga thuawm hre tur chuan, sumdawng lianten pawisa tam tak pawh an sen hreh dawn loh avangin, Thuruk vawna an vawn tlat angai a. Budget puan hma karah chuan, North Block-a Basement pakhatah Budget buatsaihna kawnga tha thawh zawng zawng chu an inkhungkhawm vek a. An ei in, an inin, an mu a. Pawnlamah nena inbiak pawhna, Phone leh thil dang engmah a awmlo a ni.
July ni 24-a Manmohan Singh-an, Parliament a a puan chhuah hma chuan, tuman an lo hre lawk ta lo reng a ni.

July ni 9, 1991-ah Prime Minister PV Narasimha Rao-an thu a sawi a. A thusawinaah pawh, budget thar ber chuan siamthatna lam a hawi dawn thu a sawi, tih thu kha kan sawi tawh a. Engtiang chiaha lian leh chakin nge siamthatna kalpui a nih dan tur erawh chu chiangin a sawi duh lo thung.

1991 July thla lai hawl velah khan, Finance Minister Manmohan Singh-a chuan, “TOP secret Draft Budget” kengin PMO-ah a lut a. PM nen an inhmu a ni. Chutih lai chuan, India sawrkar hnathawk senior tawh tak mai leh ram danga India palai hnathawk mekte chu an awm ve a. Budget Draft chu a tlangpuiin phek khat emaw a dah chhuakin, Finance Minister chuan PM chu a rawn hmu a ni. PM chuan a han chhiar zawh chuan, ” Hetiang duh ila, Finance Minsiter atan ka la chhuak nang che maw le” tiin Finance Minister chu a hrilh a. An Budget lo ruahman chu, PM duhthu a lo sam vak loin, Economy siamthatna lam a la hawi tawk lo deuh a ni awm e.

Budget hi July ni 24, 1991-ah Pharh a ni a. India rama sumdawng lian lo awm sa te chuan, economy siam thata, Liberalization kalpui chu duh mah se, an sumdawnna-in a tawrh an hlauh avangin hlauhthawnna an nei lian hle. Prime Minister Narasimha Rao-a finzia leh siamthatna kalpui a tum ruh zia ti lang chiang tu chu, Harsatna thlen thei sumdawng lian ho chu Budget pharh hmain, a mal tetein a titi pui vek a ni. Rao-a Diary-ah pawh, July Ni 20, 1991-a KK Birla nen an inkawm thu a chuang a. Dirubhai Ambani tana Siamthatna akalui dan tur sawi fiahna te pawh a mah ngeiin a kutin a ziak chhuak vek a ni.
Industrialist ho khan, an duhlo khawp mai a. A chhan chu, an dinhmun rawn chhuhsak tu tur nia an hriat vang a ni. Jairam Ramesh-a pawhin, Industrialist ho chu, JNU a Zirlai kal fawr zualte ang mai a lawm in nih le, a ti nghe nghe.

Draft hmasa kha, kan sawi tawh angin, PM a lungsik zan loh avangin an siamtha leh a, July ni 21-ah chuan an peih ta a. Chu zet chu a tha ta kher mai. Export-Import Policy thlak hlawk a ni a, Khawvel hmun dang nen Insumdawn tawnna kawngah an lo inzawm that leh zualna tur kawng a sial a. Subsidies a ti hniam a, Foreign Investment kawng awlsam takin a hawng bawk a. Licence Raj an tih mai, Khawvel economy laka India daidangtu bang chu Budget thar chuan, a rawn vaw chim vek dawn a ni.

24th July, 1991 chu India ram chanchin a ni pawimawh ber te zinga mi a ni kum khua tawh dawn a ni. Hemi ni tlai lamah hian Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh-a chuan, India Budget thar chu Parliament-ah a pharh ta a. Policy thar leh an hmalak dan tur hrang hrang te sawiin, Victor Hugo-a thusawi, “No power on earth can stop an idea whose time has come” tih hmangin, a budget pharhna thusawi chu a khar nghe nghe a ni.

India Economy siamthatna leh chhanchhuahna kawnga Prime Minister Narasimha Rao-a hnuaia Manmohan Singh-a te, Amar nath Varma te leh mi dang dangin hna an thawh dan leh, an beih dan tlangpui chu ka lo sawi zo ta a. PM-in hemi kawnga a harsatna tawh thenkhatte pawh kan sawi tawh bawk a.

Prime Minister Rao-a finna em em chu, Intelligence Bureau ho chu, A siamthatna duhlo MP ho a lo chhuichhuah tir vek a. MP 55 laiin Trade Policy phairaina hi an duh lo a. Chung zingah chuan, Minsiter Balram jakhar leh Madhava Rao Scindia te ngei pawh an tel a ni. Congress MP parukin Multinational Company te lo luh an duh lo a, chung zingah chuan, KK Birla pawh a tel. Public sector Privatize chu MP 18-in an duh lo a. MP 20-in Subsidy tih hniam an duh lo bawk a ni. IB hna hi chu, Ramchhunga Buaina siamthei, Ramchhunga hel etc te chhui a ni ber a. Rao-a hi chuan, ama MP te chhuinan a hmang thung a. Hei hian, Prime Minister Narasimha Rao-an Economic reform kaltlangpui a tum zia a ti chiang ber awm e.

1991-a Manmohan Singh-an Budget a han pharh leh meuh phei chuan, Foreign Investment a lo awl leh zual a. Stock Market pawh a kanin a kang dawrh mai a. Sensex pawh a letin a invawrh chho a. Stock Broker Harshad Meta te pawhin india ram pumah ngaihsan an hlawh ta a. 1992 August-ah phei chuan, India economy chuan lei rem a lo rap leh ta a. An term chhung zawngin, (1996 thleng) India economy kan san zelna turin hma thar an la chho zel ta a ni.

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